6.6 Polygons (Rectilinear figures):
Let us look at the figures given below and observe
their properties.
They are on the same plane(surface)
They are closed figures
They are bounded by 3 or more lines.
They have 3 or more intersecting points.
Definition:
‘Polygons’ (figures with many
sides) are figures with three or more line
segments which are coplanar (lie on the same plane), non – collinear and
whose line segments intersect each other at their
end points. The end points where line segments
meet are called ‘vertices’ of the polygon.
The line segments which make the polygon are called ‘sides’ of the polygon.
The
line segment joining any 2 non consecutive (not next to each other) vertices
of a polygon is
called a ‘diagonal’. The adjacent figure has five sides and hence it is called
pentagon. 




Observation: In
a polygon, number
of sides= number
of angles =
number of vertices. 

Examples
of polygons are Triangle (3 sides), Quadrilateral (4 sides), Pentagon (5
sides), Hexagon (6 sides), Heptagon (7 sides), Octagon (8 sides) and so on… 
Definition:
1. A ‘regular polygon’ is a polygon which is both
equilateral (all sides equal) and equiangular (all angles same). (Square is a best
example of a
regular polygon as its sides are equal and angles
are all equal to 90^{0})
2. The ‘interior region’
of a polygon is a part of the plane enclosed by the polygon. (the space
which is called area)
Exercise:
1. Draw a regular pentagon – do you notice that all
interior angles are equal to 108^{0}?
2. Draw a regular hexagon – do you notice that all interior
angles are equal to 120^{0}?
An ‘inscribed regular
polygon’ is a regular polygon whose vertices are on a circle.
(Alternatively we can say that an ‘inscribed regular polygon’ is a regular polygon whose
sides are chords (arcs) of a circle)
As an
example let us look at a regular quadrilateral:
(From each of the vertices of the regular polygon
draw lines to the center of the circle)
1.
Number of lines connecting to origin of the circle is equal to number of
sides of polygon(In the adjacent figure 4 sides: AO, BO,CO,DO ) 2. Number of angles formed at the origin of the circle is equal to number of sides of polygon( In the adjacent figure 4 angles _{}AOB, _{}BOC, _{}COD, _{}DOA) 3.
Angles at the origin are equal to each other(=90^{o}) 

6.6 Example 1: Construct an inscribed regular quadrilateral in a circle of radius 4cm:
Step
1: Divide 360^{0} by the number of sides of the quadrilateral (=4) to
get the angle at origin. Therefore angle at origin = 90^{0} = 360/4. Step
2: With O as center draw a circle of radius 4cm. Step
3: Draw 2 lines (OA and Step
4: With B as center cut an arc of radius =AB to cut the circle at C. Step
5: With C as center cut an arc of radius = BC to cut the circle at D. Step 6: Join the points A, B, C and D to get the quadrilateral ABCD. 
General
Method for constructing an inscribed regular polygon in a circle of a given
radius:
Step
1: Divide 360^{0 }by the number of sides of the polygon to get the angle
at origin. Angle at origin = 360/(No of sides of Polygon) Step
2: With O as center draw a circle of given radius. Step
3: Draw 2 lines (OA and Step
4: With B as center cut an arc of radius=AB
to cut the circle at C. Step
5: With C as center cut an arc of radius =BC to cut the circle at D. Step
6: Repeat step 5 till the last arc cuts the circle again at A. Step
7: Join the points to get the required polygon. 

Observations:
Angle at origin for different inscribed regular
polygons:
Polygon type 
No of sides 
Angle at center 
Triangle

3 
120^{0}(360÷3) 
Quadrilateral 
4 
90^{0}(360÷4) 
Pentagon 
5 
72^{0}(360÷5) 
Hexagon 
6 
60^{0}(360÷6) 
Octagon 
8 
45^{0}(360÷8) 
Think why inscribed polygon of 7 sides is not
included in the above table!
6.6.1 Theorem 1: In a polygon of ‘n’ sides, the sum of the interior
angles is equal to (2n4) right angles
Given: ABCDEFG… is a polygon of n sides (ABC, BCD,
CDE… are interior angles)
To prove: Sum of interior angles = (2n4) right
angles
Construction: Take any point O inside the polygon.
From O draw lines to each of the vertices (A,B,C…)
Step 
Statement 
Reason 

1 
The Polygon is made
up of n triangles 
Polygon has n sides 

2 
Sum of all angles of
n triangles = n*2 right
angles 
Sum of angles in a
triangle = 2 right angles 

3 
Sum of angles at O = 4 right angles 
Angle at a point =
360^{0} 

4 
Sum of
all angles of n triangles = Sum of interior angles of polygon + Angle at O 
Construction 

5 
Sum of
interior angles of polygon = Sum of all angles of n triangles  Angle
at O 
Transposition of Step
4 

6 
= 2n right angles  4
right angles = (2n4)right angles 
Substitution (step2
and 3) 
6.6.1 Corollary:
If the sides of a polygon are produced in order
(Clock wise direction or anti clock wise direction), the sum of exterior angles
so formed is equal
to 4 right angles. In the adjoining figure a,b,c…
are the exterior angles
Step 
Statement 
Reason 

1 
Sum of (interior +
exterior) angle at one vertex = 2 right angles 
angles on a straight
line = 2 right angles 

2 
Sum
of (interior + exterior) angle at n vertices
= 2n right
angles 
Step 1 

3 
Sum
of interior angles + sum of exterior angles
= Sum of (interior angle +
exterior angle) for n sides (vertices) 
Construction(figure) 

4 
Sum of exterior
angles = Sum of (interior +
exterior) angle for n sides  Sum of interior angles 
Transposition of Step
3 

5 
=
2n right angles – (2n4) right angles 
(step 2 and 6.6.1 Theorem) 

6 
= 4 right angles 

Observations:
No 
Properties 
1 
Each interior angle
of a regular polygon = (2n4)*90/n 
2 
Each exterior angle
of a regular polygon(x) = 4*90/n = 360/n 
3 
If
x is the exterior angle of a regular polygon then
the number of sides(n) = 360/x 
6.6.1 Problem 1: AB, BC and CD
are three consecutive sides of a regular polygon. If _{}BAC = 15^{0} Find
(i) Each interior angle of the polygon
(ii) Each exterior angle of the polygon
(iii) Number of sides of the polygon
Solution:
Since AB=BC, ABC is an isosceles triangle, hence _{}ACB = _{}BAC = 15^{0 }_{}_{}ABC = 150^{0} Thus Each interior angle = 150^{0} Each exterior angle = 30^{0} Number
of sides = 360/30 = 12 

6.6.1 Problem 2: Difference between the exterior angle of (n1)
sided regular polygon and the interior angle of (n+1) sided regular polygon is 9^{0}.
Find the
value of n.
Solution:
1. Exterior angle of (n1) sided regular polygon =
360/(n1)
2. Exterior angle of (n+1) sided regular polygon =
360/(n+1)
It is given that the difference between them is 9
_{} 360/(n1) – 360/(n+1)
= 9
i.e. {360(n+1)  360(n1)}/{(n+1)(n1)} = 9
i.e. 720/n^{2}1 = 9
i.e. n^{2}1 = 80
i.e. n^{2} = 81
i.e. n = 9
The regular polygon has 9 sides.
6.6 Summary of learning
No 
Points to remember 
1 
Polygons
are figures with three or more line segments which are coplanar, non
– collinear and these line segments intersect each other at their end points 
2 
A
regular polygon is a polygon which is both equilateral and equiangular 
3 
An
inscribed regular polygon is a regular polygon whose vertices are on the
circle 